By May 20, 2019, the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) had processed just over 27 million individual income tax returns filed for the 2018 tax year. Just under 17 million of those returns resulted in a refund to the taxpayer, while about 5.5 million resulted in the required payment of a tax balance by the taxpayer.
No matter what the outcome of the filing, all returns filed with and processed by the CRA have one thing in common — they result in the issuance of a Notice of Assessment (NOA) by the Agency, outlining the taxpayer’s income, deductions, credits, and tax payable for the 2018 tax year.
In most cases, the information contained in the NOA is the same as that provided by the taxpayer in his or her return, perhaps with a few arithmetical corrections made by the CRA. In a minority of cases, the information presented in the NOA will differ from that provided by the taxpayer in the return.
Where that difference means an unanticipated refund, or a larger refund than expected, it’s a happy day for the taxpayer. In some cases, however, the NOA will inform the taxpayer that additional amounts are owed to the CRA.
When that happens, the taxpayer has to figure out why, and to decide whether or not to dispute the CRA’s conclusions. Many such discrepancies are the result of an error made by the taxpayer in completing the return. A lot of information from a variety of sources is reported on even the most straightforward of returns and it’s easy to overlook, for instance, a T5 slip reporting a small amount of interest income earned. Even where tax software is used to prepare the return, errors can still occur. Such tax software relies, in the first instance, on information input by the user with respect to amounts found on T4, T5, and other information slips. No matter how good the software, it can’t account for income information which the taxpayer hasn’t provided. In other cases, the taxpayer might transpose figures when entering them, such that an income amount of $26,353 on the T4 becomes $23,653 on the tax return. Once again, the tax software has no way of knowing that the information input was incorrect, and calculates tax owing on the basis of the figures provided.
Where there is additional tax owing because of an error or omission made by the taxpayer in completing the return, and the CRA’s figures are correct, disputing the assessment doesn’t really make sense. There is, as well, a persistent tax “myth” that if a taxpayer doesn’t receive an information slip (T4 or T5, as the case might be) for income received during the year, that income doesn’t have to be reported and therefore isn’t taxable. The myth, however, is just that. All taxpayers are responsible for reporting all income received and paying tax on that income, and the fact that an information slip was lost, mislaid or never received doesn’t change anything. The CRA receives a copy of all information slips issued to Canadian taxpayers, and its systems will cross-check to ensure that all income is accurately reported.
There are, however, instances in which the CRA and the taxpayer are in disagreement over substantive issues, and those issues most often involve claims for deductions or credits. For instance, the CRA may have disallowed an individual’s claim for a medical expense, or for a deduction claimed for a business expenditure, which the taxpayer believes to be legitimate.
Whatever the nature of the dispute, the first step is always to contact the CRA for an explanation of the reasons why the change was made. While the information provided in the NOA is a good summary of the taxpayer’s tax situation for the year, it may not provide the detail to show precisely how and why the taxpayer and the CRA disagree on the actual amount of income tax which the taxpayer must pay for the year. The first step to be taken would be a call to the Individual Income Tax Enquiries line at 1-800-959-8281, where agents who have access to the taxpayer’s return can explain any changes which were made during the assessment process. If that call doesn’t resolve the taxpayer’s questions, or there is still a disagreement, the taxpayer has to decide whether to take the next step of filing a formal objection to the Notice of Assessment.
Doing so formally advises the CRA that the taxpayer is disputing his or her tax liability for the taxation year in question. Not incidentally, the filing of an Objection also brings to a halt most efforts undertaken by the CRA to collect taxes which it considers owing for the taxation year under dispute (although, if the taxpayer is eventually found to owe the amount in dispute, interest will have accumulated in the interim). Where the taxpayer files an Objection, the CRA’s collection efforts are suspended until 90 days after the date the CRA’s decision on that Objection is sent to the taxpayer. In some cases, however, those collection efforts will not be brought to a halt, in whole or in part. Tax collection efforts by the CRA are not deferred where the amounts in dispute are those which the taxpayer was required to withhold and remit to the CRA, such as employee income tax deductions at source. As well, the CRA is required to postpone collection action on only 50% of the amount in dispute where that dispute involves a charitable donation tax credit or deduction claimed in connection with a tax shelter arrangement.
There is a time limit by which any Objection must be filed, albeit a reasonably generous one. Individual taxpayers must file an Objection by the later of 90 days from the mailing date of the Notice of Assessment (the date found at the top of page 1) or one year from the due date of the return which is being disputed. So, for tax returns for the 2018 tax year, the one-year deadline (which is usually, but not always, the later of those two dates) would be April 30, 2020 (or June 15, 2020 for self-employed taxpayers and their spouses). As with most things related to taxes, it’s best not to put it off. At the very least, if the taxpayer is ultimately found to owe some or all of the taxes assessed by the CRA, interest will have accrued on those taxes for the entire period since the filing due date and, if the filing of the Objection is delayed, the CRA may well have already commenced its collection efforts. Certainly, if the deadline is imminent, it is necessary to file a Notice of Objection in order to preserve the taxpayer’s appeal rights, even if discussions with the CRA are still ongoing.
Taxpayers who have registered with the CRA’s online services feature My Account can file their Notice of Objection online at www.cra-arc.gc.ca/esrvc-srvce/tx/ndvdls/myccnt/menu-eng.html.The taxpayer provides information with respect to the assessment being disputed and the reasons why the assessment is being disputed and submits those reasons by clicking on the Submit button at the bottom of the "Register my formal dispute — review" page. Taxpayers who are disputing their tax assessment can also upload supporting documents relating to that dispute to the Agency’s website.
While filing a dispute through My Account is certainly faster than mailing hard copy of the Notice of Objection, not all taxpayers want to use that option. In particular, those who are not already registered with My Account may not wish to undertake the registration process simply in order to file a single Notice of Objection. Taxpayers who choose instead to mail hard copy of a Notice of Objection can find the most current version of the CRA’s standardized T400A Objection (which was updated and re-issued in July 2018) on the Agency’s website at https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/cra-arc/formspubs/pbg/t400a/t400a-09-18e.pdf.
Taxpayers aren’t obligated to use the CRA’s official Notice of Objection form; any communication which makes it clear that the taxpayer is objecting to his or her Notice of Assessment will do. Nonetheless, there’s no reason not to use the standardized form, and there are benefits to doing so. Using the T400A form will make it clear to the CRA that a formal objection is being filed, will present the necessary information in a format with which the CRA is familiar, and will also mean that no required information is inadvertently omitted. It is also helpful to include a copy of the Notice of Assessment which is being disputed. Taxpayers should also consider ensuring proof of both delivery and time of delivery by sending the form in a way which provides for tracking and proof of delivery (e.g., registered mail or courier).
Taxpayers whose postal code begins with letters A to P should send their documents to the Eastern Appeals Intake Centre, while objections file by those with postal codes beginning with letters R to Y should be sent to the Western Appeals Intake Centre. The addresses for the two centres are as follows.
Chief of Appeals
Eastern Appeals Intake Centre
North Central Ontario TSO
1050 Notre Dame Avenue,
Sudbury ON P3A 5C1
Chief of Appeals
Western Appeals Intake Centre
Fraser Valley and Northern TSO, 2nd floor,
9755 King George Boulevard,
Surrey BC V3T 5E1
It’s also possible to contact either of the Appeals Intake Centres by phone or fax, and the numbers for both can be found at https://www.canada.ca/en/revenue-agency/services/about-canada-revenue-agency-cra/complaints-disputes/complexity-level-processing-time.html.
The time required for the CRA to consider the objection and make its decision ranges from several weeks to several months, depending on the number and complexity of the issues involved. Eventually, however, the CRA will respond to the objection. In the course of making its decision, the CRA may or may not contact the taxpayer for further discussions of the issues in dispute. Should the taxpayer be contacted, he or she may be asked to provide representations outlining his or her position, in writing or at a meeting. Through such representations and meetings, it may be possible for the taxpayer and the CRA to come to an agreement on the taxpayer’s tax liability. In either case, the CRA will either confirm its original assessment or change it. If the original assessment is changed, the CRA will issue a Notice of Reassessment outlining the changes. If the taxpayer continues to disagree with the CRA’s position, the next step is an appeal to the Tax Court of Canada, which must be filed within 90 days after the CRA issues its assessment or reassessment. While in many instances (generally where amounts in dispute are relatively small) taxpayers can represent themselves before the Tax Court, it is generally a good idea, once things reach this point, to consult a tax lawyer before taking that next step.
The CRA also publishes a useful pamphlet entitled Resolving Your Dispute: Objection and Appeal Rights under the Income Tax Act, and the most recent release of that publication can be found on the CRA website at http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/E/pub/tg/p148/README.html.